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FAQ's linux

FTP Programs

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Error Codes Answers

1.
What is LINUX Hosting?

Linux hosting allows you to run technologies such as PHP, mySQL, CGI, Perl and C++ applications. A LINUX host is generally less expensive than a Windows based host as the operating system cost is much less expensive. When looking for a LINUX host it is generally good to inquire about the base operating system and what version of PHP and mySQL they are currently supporting.



2.
What is SSL?

Secure Socket Layers provide a means for submitting encrypted data via the web. SSL works based upon a public key / certificate system. As data is transmitted it is encrypted into 40 bit encryption and the web server then decrypts the data once it is transmitted. In the rare occasion that the data was stolen during the transmission process the only data that they would be encrypted which means that viewing it would show nothing but letters, numbers, and symbols randomly mixed.



3.
How dose SSL work?

In order for this process to work without many warning messages from IE and Netscape about possible security hazards a certificate must be obtained from a trusted source. A certificate is only good for one domain name.



4.
What is SSI?

Server Side Includes

When using a LINUX system it is sometimes necessary to enable certain HTML files executable for the purpose of using SSI. Server Side Includes is often used to run a cgi script. An include is called with an example such as this: After you insert your include, you must mark the HTML file as executable so the server will parse the file. This is done using one of two options.

1) Renaming the file to .shtml: On our server any file name .shtml will be parsed. So instead of having an index.html file, you would name it index.shtml. This is the easiest way of enabling includes.

2) CHMODing the file to 777: With CHMOD 777 you can also mark a file as executable. It is important to only make the files which you want parsed executable. This poses certain security issues, as well as a strain on our resources, as the processor has to work harder to parse a file.



5.
Reasons for Using SSI

SSI is often used to include something into an HTML page. You can insert the contents of one HTML page into another page. An example of a practical usage for this would be to include your e-mail address at the bottom of each page. If you do this as an include, then when your e-mail address changes, you will only have to update it on one page and not your entire web site. Another usage is to call cgi scripts into action. Many counters, clocks, and other scripts are called using SSI. The command used will most likely be provided in the documentation of your cgi script.



6.
What is CGI?

CGI, Common Gateway Interface, includes programs that run on the server to enhance the quality and functionality of a web site. There are many resources on-line that allow the downloading of free cgi scripts.
(For instance: http://www.worldwidemart.com/scripts/) or (http://cgi.resourceindex.com/Programs_and_Scripts/)



7.
Do you allow CGI to run on your servers?

We do allow running of cgi scripts on the servers, however they must conform to our acceptable server resource usage policy. If we deem that a script is using an excessive amount of server resources, it will be disabled.



8.
What's the correct path to perl?

Before a cgi script will work certain modifications must be made to them. Certain paths must be specified in some scripts. After the "#" in the first line of the perl script, the path to perl must be specified. /usr/bin/perl should suffice for this path. Below is a printout of a "whereis perl" from our system.

perl: /usr/local/bin/perl



9.
What is the path to send mail?

Another program that needs to be specified in many scripts is sendmail. This is located at /usr/sbin/sendmail



10.
What is the exact physical path to your root directory on the web server?

The path to your root directory is: /home/username/

obviously, substitute "username" with the login you were assigned when you first received your account details. Also, keep in mind that when you configure your CGI, that your /public_html is included in your path. For instance, if you have a guestbook.pl script in your /cgi-bin, the exact physical path to that file is: /home/username/public_html/cgi-bin/guestbook.pl



11.
Why doesn't my CGI work?

Make sure when you upload the CGI file DO NOT upload in binary mode, instead use ASCII mode. Uploading in binary will cause the server not to recognize the scripts as executables. Most FTP clients will upload .pl or .cgi files in binary mode by default so you will need to change this. You will need to upload the scripts into your cgi-bin directory for security reasons, however they will execute from anywhere within your account.

The last step is to set the file permissions. This is otherwise known as chmoding and can be done from most FTP clients.



12.
CHMOD & File Permissions - General Info.

When using a LINUX system it is sometimes necessary to change file permissions. This is done using the CHMOD command. There are two different ways to chmod a file.

Certain FTP clients such as Cute FTP and WS/FTP Pro allow for a chmoding directly within FTP. To do this you would highlight the file that you want to use, and select from the command menu "change file permissions." There is on option for "manual." This is where you will enter the desired CHMOD. Many other FTP clients will support CHMODing as well, we recommend checking the documentation.



13.
Reasons for CHMODING

CHMODing files can be done for a variety of reasons. You can CHMOD files to do things such as: mark them executable, give them write permission, restrict access to them, and a variety of other reasons. It is important to note that chmoding is nearly impossible to avoid. If you are trying to run a certain cgi script it could require execute permissions on the script itself, write permissions on a directory, and read on an informational page. Your cgi scripts should contain the proper documentation to inform you of the proper CHMOD's.



14.
List of CHMOD's & What They Mean

chmod 777 filename The file is available for Read, Write, and Execute for the owner, group, and world.

chmod 755 filename The file is available for Read, Write, and Execute for the owner; and Read and Execute only for the group and world.

chmod 644 filename The file is available for Read and Write for the owner, and Read only for the group and world.

chmod 666 filename The file is available for Read and Write for the owner, group, and world. I wonder if the 666 number is just a coincidence. Anybody can create havoc with your files with this wide-open permission mask.



FTP Programs

Answers

1.
What Program can I use to FTP to my account?

We have put together a list of popular FTP software: (Keep in mind that new versions of FTP software are continuously being released- you might want to stop by www.download.com and search for the client of your choice to see if an updated version is available.) Also www.tucows.com is recommended for windows apps.



2.
#1

WS_FTP 4.5- a standard FTP client for Windows Sockets. The graphical interface was designed with the novice FTP user in mind. This version features a reengineered FTP server detection and decoding process. Requirements: Windows 3.x or higher.



3.
#2

Cute FTP- CuteFTP is a Windows-based Internet application that lets beginners use ftp without having to know many details about the protocol itself. It simplifies ftp by offering a user-friendly, graphical interface instead of a command-line prompt. Requirements: Windows 95.



4.
#3

WinTelnet and FTP Pro 32-bit 1.0 Release 2- WinTelnet and FTP Pro is a set of Telnet and FTP clients. The application hides the complexities of LINUX with an easy-to-use Windows interface, and it offers features such as auto-login profiles and automatic FTP login. Requirements: Windows 95.



5.
#4

FTP Icon Connection 2.5- Anawave's FTP Icon Connection is a true 32-bit, drag and drop FTP client. Transfer files to and from a remote site with an easy-to-use interface and automated program settings. New features include shortcuts to 40 top FTP sites, file sorting, and firewall support. Requirements: Windows 95.



6.
#5

Free Auto FTP1.1a-Free AutoFTP is client software for transferring files over the Internet. It lets you schedule automatic transfers for a future date or time. Other AutoFTP features include automatic dial and connect, a Windows Explorer like user interface, pop-up menus, drag and drop, activity log, Icon Tray installation, multiple simultaneous transfers, repeated auto transfer scheduling, and more. Requirements: Windows 95/NT.



7.
#6

eFTP Explorer 1.10- To keep file transfers as hassle-free as possible, eFTP presents FTP sites in a familiar Explorer-like interface. It has a tree view on the justify, changeable file view on the right, and Internet Explorer/Office 97 "buttonless buttons." It also has features like file synchronization and scheduled downloads. Requirements: Windows 95/NT.



Error Codes

What do the various error codes mean?

Error Codes
Meaning
100
Informative
100
Continue
101
Switching Protocols
200
Client Request Successful
200
OK
201
Created
202
Accepted
203
Non Authoritative Information
204
No Content
205
Reset Content
206
Partial Content
300
Client Request Redirected, further action necessary
300
Multiple Choices
301
Moved Permanently
302
Moved Temporarily
303
See Other
304
Not Modified (This means the file was loaded from the browser cache instead of being resent by the server)
305
Use Proxy
400
Client request incomplete
400
Bad Request
401
Unauthorized
402
Payment Required
403
Forbidden
404
Not Found 405 Method Not Allowed
406
Not Acceptable
407
Proxy Authentication Required
408
Request TimeOut
409
Conflict
410
Gone
411
Length Required
412
Precondition Failed
413
Request Entity Too Large
414
Request URL Too Large
415
Unsupported Media Type
500
Server Errors
501
Not Implemented
502
Bad Gateway
503
Out of Resources
504
Gateway TimeOut
505
HTTP Version not supported

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